Aldus Manutius and the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili (1499—and reprinted in 1545 by his son Paulus Manutius). A controversial book, for its time, with a few sexually themed illustrations made from extremely fine lined woodcuts. Even the shape of the text is suggestive in some places. Books printed before 1501 are called "incunables." The plot of the bestselling 2004 novel Rule of Four by Ian Caldwell and Dustin Thomason revolves around the Hypnerotomachia.
Cosmographia is a printed book from 1574 with volvelles and a Renaissance map. Vellum covers.
The 20th century letterpress printed book Manhattan, by Amy Clampitt, woodcuts by Margaret Sunday, printed by Kim Merker of Windhover Press at the University of Iowa, 1990. Lovely poems with minimalist abstract images in several colors that evoke movement, maps, jazz, and the city.
Lettering for Alchimie Du Verbe (Alchemy of the Word) by Arthur Rimbaud, written out in 1988 by master calligrapher Thomas Ingmire, who is also working on the St. John's Bible. A major show of his works is at Columbia College Chicago Center for Paper and Book Arts until early December. You can view the exhibition brochure here.
Andrea wrote later, "Author and artist Carl Maria Seyppel called his works 'Aegyptische Humoreske' and 'Mummiendruck' (mummy prints)." She speculates that they were printed as a parody, to mock the idea of what a book should be. They looked like they were aged and made of papyrus, including a seal on the cover. He was certainly interested in his materials. Seyppel lived 1847-1913. More info at the end of this essay.
And a treat: signs painted for the library by the artist Margaret Kilgallen, when she worked as a page and book repairer in the Preservation Department, now part of Book Arts & Special Collections Center. They have preserved these originals (painted on doorskin and reused wood signs); and made facsimiles that are still posted in the Technical Services Department.